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Ancient Egypt

Egypttraveltips.com is so interested in Egypt in general & would like to give you in particular a brief about ancient Egypt, Egypt has a longer recorded history than any other country of the western world but inevitably its beginnings are shrouded in mystery & doubt.There is a discussion upon the question whether the ancestors of the Egyptians were in origin African or Asiatic. The question now may seem to be not of great importance, Like other people of antiquity, the Egyptians had no exact system of chronology, events being often dated according to the years of a king's reign. For this purpose the priests maintained long lists of kings, some fragments of which have survived: Abydos King List, Tablet of Karnak, Tablet of Saqqara, Turin Papyrus & Palermo Stone. They are all about ancient Egypt.

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Lists of this kind provided the basis for the "History of Egypt" written by Manetho, a priest of Heliopolis in the reigns of Ptolemy I & Ptolemy II, so Manetho was the first one arranged all the rulers of ancient Egypt from the 1st king , Menes, to Alexander the Great , in 30 dynasties.

Also much information on Egyptian history & ancient Egypt can be collected from the accounts by Herodotus (c. 500-420 BC) & Strabo (c. 63 BC-c. AD 25)                                

* Prehistoric Period (before 60000 BC?!):

 This period is still obscure.

* Early Period (about 3200 BC):

The earliest political organizations appear to have been the two kingdoms of Upper & Lower Egypt, each of which was divided into nomes. This had happened more than 3000 BC when the Egyptian history officially began.

About 5200 years ago, the founder of Egyptian history, according to Manetho, was the King Menes, who united Upper & Lower Egypt for the first time. No one knows for sure how he did this, but his action gave rise to Egypt's first stable dynasty. The powerful & civilized reign of Menes suggests that civilization must have developing in the Nile Valley for many centuries before this time.Since Egypt was described, by Herodotus the Greek traveler & historian, as "the gift of the Nile", this land has been capturing the imagination of all who visit it.The Nile River flows majestic & serene, the lifeblood of Egypt as it has been since the beginning of history.

* Old Kingdom or Pyramids Age (c 2600 BC):

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From the 3rd dynasty to the 6th dynasty. The kings who ruled like: Zoser, Snefru, Cheops, Chephren, Menkaure, Userkaf, Unas, & Pepi I, & Pepi II.

* First Intermediate Period (c. 2150 BC)

* Middle Kingdom (c. 2000 BC):

    From 11th dynasty to 12th dynasty. The Kings who ruled like: Mentohotep, Amenemhat I, II, III, Senwosret I, II, II.

* Second Intermediate Period or Hyksos Period (c. 1750 BC)

* New Kingdom (c. 1500 BC):

    From 18th dynasty to 24th dynasty, The kings who ruled like Amonhotep I, Tuthosis III, Tutankhamum, Horemheb, Ramses II, Seti I,Ramses III, Pinujem, Sheshonq & Tefnakhte                  

* Late Period (c 700 BC):

    From 25th dynasty to 30 dynasty. The kings ruled like:  Piankhi, Shabaka, Psmatichus, Amasis, Cambyses, Achoris, Nectanebo I & II.

* 31st dynasty (c. 340 BC): The Persian kings ruled before the famous coming of Alexander the Great (c. 332 BC)

* Greek Rule (332 – 30 BC): From Ptolemy I till the time of Cleopatra VII.            

Much of Ancient Egypt may be seen without ever setting foot in the country. The progress & the scale of the excavations combined with the extraordinary proliferation of the objects, large & small, created by the Ancient Egyptians over an enormous period of time, have had the effect that their works are now scattered over all the civilized world.                                      

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In France there is the famous collection in the Louvre. Italy has considerable collections in the Vatican Museum & at Turin. Te Berlin Collection was famous & there are objects on view at Leiden in Holland & at Athens. There is an exhibition in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York & in the Museum in Brooklyn. In Britain the British Museum is famous. In Edinburgh, at Oxford & Cambridge, At Liverpool there are Egyptian objects.

Of all these collections the most famous are the Louvre & the British Museum, the reason for their pre-eminence being that it was the French & the British who were able to get in first on the long-drawn-out business of removing Egypt's treasures.