The Temple of Luxor
On the east bank of the Nile river and at the same line of Karnak Temple, there is another symbol of the Egyptian civilization and a legend of world legendary, it is the Luxor temple which told and still tells the greatness of Egyptian people and civilization.
It has been built for worshiping of Amon Ra`a, Moot, and Khonso the Gods who are called Tibian Trinity, based on a plan put through the middle state, the second transmission age, and at the beginning of the modern state.
The most outstanding important buildings in the temple which is built by the king Amon Hotob from the eighteen family and the king Ramses from nineteen family. Also there has been a triplicity compartment destroyed since the queen Hatshepsut era and the kind 3rd Tohotmos from the eighteen family, and has been rebuilt since the king 2nd Ramses.
After that, the kings has changed some of the temple`s inscriptions, for example which included the scenes of " Obet" feast in the era of Tut Ankh Amon Hormoheb, in addition to the scenes of the Holy Boat in the era of the Great Alexander.
It is connected to the Karnak Temple via sheep way ( Alkebash way), and at the entrance of the Temple you will find the Obelisk which built by 2nd Ramses to depict his military achievements and defending enemies. Inside, you will find a room called the delivery room, in it you will find inscriptions reveal the holy delivery of 3rd Amonhotob as a one of Amon sons. And in his seeking to satisfy the priest of Amon, Amonhotob recorded inscriptions and drawings glorifies Amon Ra`a and show his favor on the livings and life in general.
2nd Ramses has been participated in the building of the Temple, he has been added an open yard and a large building in the purpose of religious festivals, also built a two large Obelisks provided with an inscriptions showing his
achievements and campaign against Hittites, in particular the battle of Kaddish which fought to ensure the state border, and to add a new lands to expand its border, also he has been built a huge statues embodied him and standing between the columns classes referring to the laws which have basis and foundations, applied to all without discrimination.
By another way
Luxor, a city of many names, is the modern counterpart of the ancient city of Thebes.
Located about 415 miles south of Cairo. Its name is derived from the Arabic word (El Qusur) meaning "the castles" & referring perhaps to the Luxor & Karnak temples on the eastern bank of the Nile in the "city of the Living."
The two great temples of Luxor & Karnak located in Luxor are connected by the an avenue lined on both sides with sphinxes that have lion bodies & human or ram heads.
The "City of the Dead", or the Necropolis, on the west side of the Nile is a vast cemetery extending three kilometers for the edge of the desert opposite Luxor.
The name of Thebes in ancient times was Wast, or "the Sceptre." It was also called Niwt, or "the city " from which comes the Hebrew name by which it is known in the Bible, No, or No Amon, or "the city of Amon."
South of Luxor & near the bank of the Nile rises the temple of Luxor. It covers 4 acres & it is more than 580 feet long.
It was excavated first by Maspero in 1884 . Its colonnades appear impressive from the river. The lights & shadows of the great building are best seen in the afternoon.
This temple was built entirely during the 18th dynasty & the 19th dynasty. The temple, built by Amenophis III ( about 1417-1379 B.C.) of the 18th dynasty on the site of an earlier temple of the Middle Kingdom (about 2000 B.C), was dedicated to the Theban Triad, Amon Ra, his wife Mut, & their son Khonsu. Amon Ra is shown in reliefs as a man or as a ram. The goddess Mut is represented as a woman wearing the double crown . The god Khonsu is depicted sometimes as a mummified youth wearing a crown & other times as a falcon-headed god.
Thotmosis III (about 1504-1450 B.C.) of the 18th dynasty built a shrine , for the Triad, the blocks of the shrine originally have the names of Hatshepsut, used by the ancient Egyptians & by the Christians, & by the Moslems. This seems to indicate that the site was sacred in even earlier days. Ramses II (about 1300-1237 B.C.) of the 19th dynasty added the northern court & the massive pylon. In the Christian period, parts of the temple were converted into a church.
The mosque of Abu el-Haggag, a Moslem saint, later occupied part of the pylons & the court of Ramses II.
In front of the façade of the temple is part of the Avenue of Sphinxes, dating from King Nectanebo of the 30th dynasty (about 380 B.C.). This avenue, which extends for 2 & half kilometers, connects this temple with its sister temple at Karnak.
In front of the principal pylon originally stood huge granite statues of Ramses II, some of them still in situ & in a good condition.
2 obelisks of pink granite once stood at the entrance, one of them was presented in 1836 by Mohamed Ali to King of France. It is now in the Place de la Concorde.
The most important architectural parts of the temple are as follow:
* Forecourt of Amenophis III.
* Hypostyle Hall.
* The Chapels.
* Birth Room.
* Chapel of Alexander the Great.